“The Queen stood at Thy Right Hand”: Eusebius of Caesarea, Commentary on Psalm 44 LXX — A Translation

September 19, 2020

This beautiful Psalm offers a profound prophetic picture of Christ, the Church, and Mary the Theotokos. It is of course quoted by St. Paul in the Letter to the Hebrews (1.8-9), and continued to inform the Church’s theological vision in many ways.

Eusebius’s commentary is particularly valuable in its engagement with the Hexaplaric versions. Eusebius unfortunately provides no commentary for vv. 11-13.

This is an initial draft, and I welcome any suggested improvements to the translation.

[23.392]
V. 1.          ΕΙΣ ΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ, ΥΠΕΡ ΤΩΝ ΑΛΛΟΙΩΘΗΣΟΜΕΝΩΝ, ΤΟΙΣ ΥΙΟΙΣ ΚΟΡΕ, ΕΙΣ ΣΥΝΕΣΙΝ, ΩΔΗ ΥΠΕΡ ΤΟΥ ΑΓΑΠΗΤΟΥ ΜΔʹ. V. 2.          Ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθὸν, λέγω ἐγὼ τὰ ἔργα μου τῷ βασιλεῖ. Ἡ γλῶσσά μου κάλαμος γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου. Οἱ τὰ τοσαῦτα διὰ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν ἀποκλαυσάμενοι ἐντεῦθεν ᾠδὰς καὶ ᾄσματα ἀντὶ τῶν προτέρων ὀδυρμῶν ᾄδουσι, τῆς ἀπὸ τῶν σκυθρωπῶν μεταβολῆς αἴτιον αὐτοῖς γεγονέναι τὸν Ἀγαπητὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ δηλοῦντες· ὃν καὶ δι’ ὅλης τῆς ᾠδῆς ἀνυμνοῦσιν. Ἀλλ’ ἐπείπερ ταῦτα μακροῖς ὕστερον χρόνοις γίγνεσθαι ἤμελλεν, εἰκότως Εἰς τὸ τέλος ἐπιγράφουσι τὴν προφητείαν, ἢ ἐπινίκιον, ἢ τῷ νικοποιῷ, διὰ τὰ κατὰ τῶν νοητῶν πολεμίων νικητήρια. Προσέθηκαν δὲ τῇ ἐπιγραφῇ τὸ, ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀλλοιωθησομένων· ἐπειδὴ καὶ αὐτοὶ οἱ ταῦτα φάσκοντες ἀλλοίωσιν τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν σκυθρωπῶν λόγων ἐπὶ τὴν φαιδροτέραν ᾠδὴν πεποίηνται. Οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐμφερόμενα δι’ ὅλης τῆς ᾠδῆς πλείστης πεπλήρωται ἀλλοιώσεως. Ὅ τε γὰρ Ἀγαπητὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἑαυτὸν κενώσας, καὶ μορφὴν δούλου λαβὼν, σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλοίωσιν οὐ τὴν τυχοῦσαν ἔδοξεν ὑπομένειν, ἀναλλοίωτος ὢν καὶ ἄτρεπτος ὡς Θεός· οἵ τε δι’ αὐτοῦ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν διάβολον αἰχμαλωσίας λυτρωθέντες, εἰς ἐλευθερίαν τε τὴν ὑπὸ τῷ Θεῷ μετενηνεγμένοι, τὴν καλλίστην ἀληθῶς αὐτοὶ ἀλλοίωσιν ὑπομεμενήκασι. Διὸ καὶ ἡ ἐμφερομένη τοῖς λόγοις βασίλισσα κελεύεται λήθην ποιήσασθαι τοῦ λαοῦ ἑαυτῆς καὶ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρὸς ἑαυτῆς· καὶ θυγάτηρ δὲ Τύρου ἀλλόφυλος ἐπὶ τὴν καλὴν μεταβολὴν ταύτην καλεῖται· παρθένοι τε καὶ υἱοί τινες ἀντὶ πατέρων γενόμενοι, λαοί τε ἐξομολογούμενοι τῷ Θεῷ, τῆς αὐτῆς ἠξιώθησαν ἀλλοιώσεως. Ὧν δὲ ἕνεκα πάντων ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀλλοιωθησομένων προγέγραπται ἡ ᾠδή· κατὰ δὲ τὸν Ἀκύλαν, ἐπὶ τοῖς κρίνοις· κατὰ δὲ τὸν Σύμμαχον, ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀνθῶν. Οἱ γὰρ ἀλλοιωθέντες, οὗτοι εὐωδίας πνεύσαντες, καὶ ἄνθη νεαρὰ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας γενόμενοι, τοῦτον ὠνομάσθησαν τὸν τρόπον. Διὸ, ἵνα ταῦτα νοηθῇ, ἀναγκαίως πρόσκειται τῇ προγραφῇ τὸ, εἰς σύνεσιν· καὶ ἵνα συνῶμεν, ὡς ὁ πᾶς λόγος ᾠδὴν περιέχει ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ, ἢ κατὰ τὸν Σύμμαχον· Ἄσμα εἰς τὸν Ἀγαπητόν. Ἔνθα δὲ γενόμενος, πάντα ὅσα περὶ Ἀγαπητοῦ συνάξεις· οἷον ἐν Ἡσαΐᾳ· Ἄσω δὴ τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ ᾆσμα τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ τῷ ἀμπελῶνί μου. Ἀμπελὼν ἐγενήθη τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ· δι’ ὧν σημαίνεται ἀμπελὼν μὲν ὁ οἶκος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ· τοῦτο γὰρ ἑξῆς ὁ λόγος δηλοῖ· ἠγαπημένος δὲ καὶ Ἀγαπητὸς ὁ Μονογενὴς τοῦ Θεοῦ Υἱὸς, οὗ μερὶς γέγονε καὶ κλῆρος πρότερος ὁ δηλωθεὶς ἀμπελών. Ἐπεὶ δὲ πᾶς ἠγαπημένος καὶ ἀγαπητὸς ἔχει τὸν ἀγαπῶντα, σαφῶς διὰ τούτων ὁ λόγος παρίστησι τὸν ἀμπελῶνα κτῆμα γεγονέναι τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ, περὶ οὗ ἡ προκειμένη ᾠδὴ εἴρηται [23.393], ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ. Καὶ ἐν Ψαλμοῖς δὲ λέλεκται· Κύριος δώσει ῥῆμα τοῖς εὐαγγελιζομένοις δυνάμει πολλῇ. Ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν δυνάμεων τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ. Σαφῶς δὲ κἀνταῦθα ἰδίως μνημονευομένου Κυρίου τοῦ Θεοῦ τῶν ὅλων· καὶ πάλιν ἰδίως τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ, καὶ ἐν τῇ τρίτῃ τάξει τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων τὸν Ἀγαπητὸν, οἷς δίδοσθαι ῥῆμα ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἄνωθεν λέλεκται, καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν συνίσταται μαρτυρία. Καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ δὲ αὖθις εἴρηται· Καὶ ὁ ἠγαπημένος ὡς υἱὸς μονοκερώτων. Προκείσθω τούτοις καὶ τὸ ἐπισφράγισμα τῶν ὅλων, τὸ σωτήριον Εὐαγγέλιον ἐν φωνῇ πατρικῇ τὸν Ἀγαπητὸν ἄνωθεν παρ’ ἀνθρώποις ἐδείκνυ, βοώσῃ· Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητὸς, ἐν ᾧ εὐδόκησα. Τοσούτων ἀποδεδειγμένων περὶ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ, σαφὴς ἂν εἴη λοιπὸν καὶ ἀναμφίλεκτος ἡ προκειμένη προφητεία διὰ τῆς προγραφῆς φήσασα· Ὠδὴ ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ. Ὅτι δὲ ὁ Χριστὸς ἦν οὗτος, ἕτερος ὢν παρὰ τὸν χρίσαντα αὐτὸν Πατέρα, προϊὼν ἑξῆς ὁ λόγος ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ψαλμῷ παρέστησε. Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν εἰς τὴν προγραφὴν εἰρήσθω· τὰ δ’ ἑξῆς πάλιν ὁ χορὸς ὁ προφητικὸς διεξέρχεται, ὁ καὶ τὰ πρῶτα διεξελθών. Τινὲς ᾠήθησαν, ὡς ἐκ προσώπου τοῦ Πατρὸς λέγεσθαι τὸν ψαλμὸν ἤτοι τὴν ᾠδὴν περὶ τοῦ ἐν ἀρχῇ ὄντος πρὸς αὐτὸν Λόγου, ὃν ἐκ τῆς οἱονεὶ καρδίας, ἢ αὐτῶν τῶν σπλάγχνων, φησὶ, προήγαγε· καὶ ἀπὸ ἀγαθῆς καρδίας ἀγαθὸς λόγος προῆλθεν. Ἐμοὶ δὲ δοκεῖ ταῦτα ἐπὶ τὸ προφητικὸν ἀναφέρεσθαι πρόσωπον· τὰ γὰρ ἐφ’ ἑξῆς τοῦ ῥητοῦ οὐκέτι ὁμοίως ἐξομαλίζει ἡμῖν τὴν περὶ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐξήγησιν. Οὔτε γὰρ ἂν περὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ γλώσσης ὁ Πατὴρ εἶπεν, ὅτι·
[M23.392]
V. 1.          FOR THE END, CONCERNING THOSE WHO WILL BE CHANGED, BY THE SONS OF KORAH, FOR UNDERSTANDING, ODE CONCERNING THE BELOVED 44.
V. 2.          My heart has belched forth a good word, I myself speak my works to the king. My tongue is the stylus of a swiftly writing scribe. (Ps 44.2). Those who were wailing in lament such things as were [recorded] in the [psalms] before are here singing odes and songs instead of the former lamentations, thus they are indicating that the Beloved of God has become for them the cause of the change from sullen gloom. Indeed it is He whom they are hymning through the whole ode. But since these things are going to happen later in the far distant future, he fittingly uses the superscription For the end for the prophecy, or Song of victory, or To the victory-giver, on account of the victories against noetic adversaries. He adds to the superscription, Concerning those who will be changed, since the very people who are saying these things have been made to change from sullen gloomy words to the cheerful ode. But what is more, the parties at issue through the whole ode have been filled with an abundance of change. For the Beloved of God, having emptied himself, and taken on the form of a servant, having been found in pattern as a man (Phil 2.7), seemed to undergo a change that was in no wise ordinary, since as God He is immutable and immovable. And those redeemed through Him from the captivity to the devil, having been transferred to the freedom of [slavery] to God, have themselves truly undergone the most excellent change. Wherefore the queen at issue in the words [of the Psalm] is commanded to forget her people and her own father’s house (Ps 44.11); the foreign “daughter[1] of Tyre” (Ps 44.13) is also called to this good change. Virgins (Ps 44.15) and certain sons who are instead of fathers (Ps 44.17), peoples who are confessing to God (Ps 44.18), have been deemed worthy of the same change. The ode has been given the heading, concerning those who will be changed, because of all these [groups]; but according to Aquila [it reads], for the lilies, while according to Symmachus, for the flowers. For those who were changed, who exude fragrant scent, being young flowers of the Church, are named in this figure. Wherefore, so that these things might be understood, it was necessary to attach to the title, for understanding; and so that we might understand how the whole work (λόγος) involves a song concerning the Beloved, or according to Symmachus, A song to the Beloved. At this point, you might gather all the [passages] such as pertain to the Beloved, as for example in Isaiah: I will sing to my beloved a song of the Beloved to my vineyard. There was a vineyard [belonging] to the beloved (Isa 5.1). Through this the house of Israel is signified as a vineyard, for the passage indicates this subsequently (Isa 5.7), while “the beloved” is in fact the Beloved Only-begotten Son of God, whose portion and inheritance the vineyard indicated had formerly become. But since everyone “loved” and “beloved” involves someone loving, the word clearly presents through these things the vineyard as being a possession of the Beloved of God, about whom the ode at hand has said [M23.393], concerning the Beloved. In the Psalms it also reads, The Lord will give a word to those who proclaim the good news with great power; the King of the powers of the Beloved (Ps 67.12-13). Here also it is clear, with the Lord God of all being mentioned individually, and again the Beloved individually, along with the third order of those who proclaim the good news about the Beloved, to whom it is said that a word is given from God himself on high, that the witness [of the text] consists about our Savior. In another place, moreover, it is said, And the beloved is like a son of unicorns (Ps 28.6). To these passages let the confirming seal of the whole matter be provided: the saving Gospel was showing forth the Beloved to men by means of the Fatherly voice above, which cried out, This is my Son, the Beloved, in whom I am well-pleased (Matt 3.17; 17.5). With these things having been indicated concerning the Beloved, the present prophecy should be clear, then, and beyond dispute when it says through the superscription, Ode concerning the Beloved. That this was the Christ, who is different than the Father who anointed him, the word presents in this psalm in what comes next. Let these things be said about the title, but the prophetic band, who related the things at first, resumes again relating the things that follow. Certain people suppose that the psalm has been spoken as though from the person of the Father, in fact as the ode concerning the Logos who was with Him in the beginning (cf. Jn 1.1), whom he brought forth, it says, from the heart as it were, or from the inward parts themselves, and a good word came forth from a good heart. But it seems to me that these things are to be referred to the prophetic person, for the things that follow in the passage likewise do nothing to make us agree with the interpretation concerning the Father. For the Father would not say concerning his own tongue, that:
Vv. 3-8.     Ἡ γλῶσσά μου κάλαμος γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου. Ὡραῖος κάλλει παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. Οὐ γὰρ ἐκ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους συγκρίσεως τὴν ὑπεροχὴν τοῦ κάλλους ἔχει. Καὶ προϊὼν δέ φησι· Διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Θεός σου ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως· οὐ γὰρ εἶπεν· Ἔχρισά σε ἐγὼ ὁ Θεὸς, ἀλλ’ ἔχρισέ σε· ὥστε ἐκ τούτου παρίστασθαι ἕτερον εἶναι τὸ διαλεγόμενον πρόσωπον. Ποῖον οὖν ἐστι τοῦτο ἢ ὁ προφήτης, ὁ χωρήσας τὴν τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος εἰς ἑαυτὸν γενομένην ἐνέργειαν; Ἀντὶ δὲ τοῦ· Ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου, ὁ Σύμμαχος· Ἐκινήθη, φησὶν, ἡ καρδία μου λόγῳ ἀγαθῷ. Ὡς γὰρ ἑτέρου ἀπαγγείλαντος τὸν λόγον, αὐτὸς κεκινῆσθαί φησι διὰ τῆς ἀκοῆς. Ἐν τῷ φάσκειν· Λέγω ἐγὼ τὰ ἔργα μου τῷ βασιλεῖ, οὐδέτερον δηλοῦσι βασιλέα, ἢ τὸν Ἀγαπητὸν αὐτὸν, ᾧ καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς πεφώνηται. Τούτῳ γὰρ, φησὶ, τὰ ἔργα μου διηγήσομαι· ἢ κατὰ τὸν Ἀκύλαν καὶ τὸν Σύμμαχον, τὰ δικαιώματά μου ἐξαγγελῶ. Πολλῆς δὲ γέμων παῤῥησίας ἐπ’ ἀγαθοῖς ἔργοις ὁ τῶν προφητῶν χορὸς, ταῦτα λέγειν τεθάρσηκεν. Εἰ δὲ καὶ γνῶναι ποθεῖς τίνα ἦν τῶν προφητῶν τὰ ἔργα, μάθοις ἂν διὰ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν, ἐν οἷς ἔφασκον· Ταῦτα πάντα ἦλθεν ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς, καὶ οὐκ ἐπελαθόμεθά σου, καὶ οὐκ ἠδικήσαμεν ἐν Διαθήκῃ σου· καὶ πάλιν· Ὅτι [23.396] ἕνεκά σου θανατούμεθα ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν. Μέγα δὲ ἦν ἔργον καὶ τὸ διὰ γλώττης τὰ μέλλοντα προφητεύειν, καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ διακονεῖσθαι τὴν εὐαγγελικὴν ᾠδήν. Ἀντὶ δὲ τοῦ· Κάλαμος γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου, ὁ μὲν Ἀκύλας· Σχοῖνος γραμματέως ταχινοῦ· ὁ δὲ Σύμμαχος· ἡ γλῶσσά μου, φησὶ, γραφεῖον γραφέως ταχινοῦ. Σφόδρα δὲ θαυμαστῶς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γλῶσσαν, οὐ χεῖρα γραμματέως ἐπιστήμονος, οὐδὲ γραμματέα φησὶν, ἀλλὰ κάλαμον γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου· δηλῶν, ὅτι ὄργανον ἦν ἡ προφητικὴ γλῶσσα ἑτέρου τοῦ χρωμένου αὐτῇ, ἁγίου Πνεύματος· ὅπερ ὁ γραμματεὺς, οὗ γραφεῖον καὶ κάλαμος ἐτύγχανεν ἡ τῶν προφητῶν γλῶσσα, ὥσθ’ ἕτερον εἶναι τὸν ὀξυγράφον γραμματέα, δηλαδὴ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, καὶ ἕτερον τὸν προφήτην, καὶ τρίτον τὴν γλῶσσαν τὴν προφητικὴν, ἣ καλάμου καὶ γραφείου χώραν ἐπεῖχεν, ὄργανον τυγχάνουσα τοῦ χρωμένου αὐτῇ ἁγίου Πνεύματος.Vv. 3-8.     My tongue is the stylus of a swiftly writing scribe. [More] comely in beauty than the sons of men (Ps 44.2-3). For he has a supremacy of beauty that has no comparison with that of men. And going on, he says, For this reason God, your God, anointed you with the oil of gladness (Ps 44.8), for he did not say, “I, God, anointed you,” but he anointed you, so as to show from this that there is a person other [than the Father] discoursing here. What sort of person could this be except the prophet, who receives the energy of the Holy Spirit which comes upon him? Instead of My heart has belched forth, Symmachus says, “My heart was moved with a good word.” For as though someone else is reporting the word, he says he has been moved through hearing [it]. When he says, I myself spoke my works to the king, he is indicating no other king than the Beloved himself, to whom the following things are addressed. For it says, I will recount my works to Him, or according to the Aquila and Symmachus, “I will announce my righteous [deeds].” The choir of the prophets, being filled with great boldness about good works, has made bold to say these things. If you desire to understand what these works of the prophets are, you may learn through the passages just before, in which they said, All these things have come upon us, yet we have not forgotten you, and we have not dealt unrighteously in your Covenant (Ps 43.18); and again, For [M23.396] your sake we are being killed all day long (Ps 43.23/Rom 8.36). It was a great work to prophesy things to come by means of the tongue, and to be a minister of the evangelical ode for the king. Instead of Stylus of a swiftly writing scribe, Aquila has, “Reed of quick scribe,” and Symmachus reads, “my tongue is a pencil of a quick scribe.” It is an exceedingly marvelous thing that he calls his own tongue, not a hand of skillful scribe, nor a scribe [itself], but rather a stylus of a swiftly writing scribe, which indicates that the prophetic tongue was the instrument of someone else who made use of it, [namely,] the Holy Spirit. This scribe, whose “pencil” and stylus the tongue of the prophets happened to be, such that the swiftly writing scribe is one thing—namely, the Holy Spirit—while the prophet is another, and thirdly the prophetic tongue [is yet another], which [tongue] plays the role of stylus and “pencil,” becoming an instrument of the Holy Spirit who made use of it.[2]
Εἰδέναι δὲ δεῖ, ὡς κατὰ τὴν τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα ἑρμηνείαν συνῆπται ἡ διάνοια τῷ καλάμῳ τοῦ γραμματέως, ὑφ’ ἕνα τε στίχον τὸ ὅλον ἀπείληπται λόγιον, οὕτως ἔχον· γλῶσσά μου κάλαμος γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου· ὡραῖος κάλλει παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. Ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ Ἑβραϊκὴ λέξις καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ἑρμηνευταὶ, τὴν τῶν ἀνωτέρω διάνοιαν περιγράψαντες, ἀπὸ ἑτέρας ἀρχῆς τὴν ἔκθεσιν ἐποιήσαντο· εἰκότως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐξ ἑτέρας ἀρχῆς τό· Ὡραῖος κάλλει παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, παρεθήκαμεν. Ὁ μὲν οὖν Ἀκύλας τοῦτον ἡρμήνευσε τὸν τρόπον, Κάλλει ἐκαλλιώθης ἀπὸ υἱῶν ἀνθρώπων· ὁ δὲ Σύμμαχος· Κάλλει καλὸς εἶ παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· ὥστε εἶναι τὰ πρῶτα τῆς ᾠδῆς ἀντὶ προοιμίου λελεγμένα. Μέλλων γὰρ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι τὸν ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ λόγον, καὶ τὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ προφέρειν ᾠδὴν ὁ προφητικὸς χορὸς, προοιμίῳ κέχρηται, στήσας τὸ προοίμιον ἕως τοῦ· Ἡ γλῶσσά μου κάλαμος γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου. Ἐντεῦθεν δὲ λοιπὸν ἀπάρχεται τῆς εἰς πρόσωπον τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ ᾠδῆς· ἀναφωνεῖ τε πρὸς αὐτόν· Ὡραῖος εἶ κάλλει, καλὸς εἶ, ἢ κάλλει ἐκαλλιώθης, ἢ κάλλει ὡραιώθης, ὦ Ἀγαπητὲ, παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. Εἰ γὰρ καὶ τὰ μάλιστα εἷς τις γέγονας καὶ αὐτὸς υἱῶν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ κατηριθμήθης τοῖς ἐπὶ γῆς πολιτευσαμένοις· ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἔστι παραβάλλειν τῷ κάλλει σου ἕτερον. Δῆλον δὲ, ὅτι κατὰ τὴν ἀρετήν· οὕτω γὰρ οὔτε δόξει ἐναντία τούτοις Ἡσαΐας λέγειν φήσας· Καὶ ἴδομεν αὐτὸν, καὶ οὐκ εἶχεν εἶδος οὐδὲ κάλλος· ἀλλὰ τὸ εἶδος αὐτοῦ ἄτιμον, ἐκλεῖπον παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. Ἐκεῖνα γὰρ τὸν σταυρὸν καὶ τὸ πάθος προανεφώνει, ἃ παροινίας καὶ ὕβρεως ὑπῆρχε μεστά· διὸ δὴ καὶ ἐπήγαγεν ὁ προφήτης· Ἄνθρωπος ἐν πληγῇ ὢν, καὶ εἰδὼς φέρειν μαλακίαν, ἠτιμάσθη καὶ οὐκ ἐλογίσθη. Ὁ δὲ ψαλμὸς κάλλος αὐτοῦ καλεῖ, καθ’ ἃ εἴρηται, οὐ τὸ τοῦ σώματος, ἀλλὰ τὸ τῆς ἀρετῆς, ἁμαρτίας οὐ δεξάμενον σπῖλον.We should be aware that, since according to the translation of the Seventy the meaning is connected to the stylus of the scribe, the whole oracle is taken under one verse, which reads as such: My tongue is the stylus of a swiftly writing scribe; More comely in beauty than the sons of men (Ps 44.2b-3a). But since the Hebrew text and the other translations, which bracket the meaning of the above, have caused the reading [to have] another beginning, fittingly we also have juxtaposed More beautiful than the sons of men from another beginning. Aquila translates this passage, “You have been beautified with beauty beyond the sons of men,” while Symmachus reads, “You are beautiful with a beauty more than the sons of men,” inasmuch as these are the first things spoken in the ode in place of an introduction. For when the prophetic choir comes to herald the account concerning the Beloved, and to bring forth the ode about him, it makes use of an introduction, presenting the introduction up to, My tongue is the stylus of a swiftly writing scribe. Hereafter it commences the ode to the person of the Beloved, and it proclaims to him, More comely in beauty are you, “you are beautiful,” or “you have been beautified with beauty,” or “you have been made [more] comely in beauty,” O Beloved, than the sons of men. For even if there might be someone who has superior features who is himself among the sons of men, and is numbered among those whose citizenship is on earth, yet this other [beauty] does not compare with your beauty, which is obviously a beauty according to virtue, for such is what Isaiah says, that [he appeared] with no glory before them, saying, We saw him, and he had no form nor beauty, but his form was dishonorable, failing beyond the sons of men (Isa 53.2-3). These things preannounced the cross and the passion, which were laden with insult[3] and abuse. Wherefore the prophet asserts, He was a man in affliction, and knowing to bear sickness, he was dishonored and not reckoned (Isa 53.3). But the psalm, according to what has been said, refers to his “beauty,” not as pertaining to the body, but [a beauty] pertaining to virtue, which admits no stain of sin.
Τούτοις ἑξῆς εἴρηται· Ἐξεχύθη χάρις ἐν χείλεσί σου· διὰ τοῦτο εὐλόγησέ σε Θεὸς εἰς [23.397] τὸν αἰῶνα. Μωϋσῆς μὲν οὖν εὗρε μίαν τινὰ χάριν· καὶ Νῶε πάλιν εὗρέ τινα χάριν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ· καὶ ἕκαστος τῶν δικαίων χάριτος μετέσχεν. Ἐπεὶ δὲ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ πᾶσα ἡ πατρικὴ εἰς αὐτὸν ἐκενώθη χάρις· ἦν γὰρ ὁ Πατὴρ λαλῶν ἐν Υἱῷ· ἔνθεν καὶ ἡ διακονησαμένη τὴν εἰς ἀνθρώπους αὐτοῦ πάροδον κεχαριτωμένη ἐλέχθη. Ἐν αὐτῷ γὰρ εὐδόκησε πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς θεότητος κατοικῆσαι σωματικῶς διὸ πάντες οἱ ἅγιοι ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ εἰλήφασιν. Ἐπιβαλεῖς δὲ καὶ οὕτως· Τὸ πρῶτον ἔργον τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ ἡ χάρις ἡ ἐν τοῖς χείλεσιν αὐτοῦ κεχυμένη, κατὰ τὴν ἀποδοθεῖσαν διάνοιαν· καὶ καθ’ ἕτερον δὲ τρόπον, χάρις καὶ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο. Ἐπειδὴ πάντα χαριζόμενος ἔπραττε τοῖς μὲν ἀφιεὶς τὰς ἁμαρτίας, τῶν δὲ τὰς νόσους καὶ τὰς μαλακίας ἰώμενος, τοῖς δὲ τὸ ἅγιον Πνεῦμα δωρούμενος. Δι’ ὃ πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰκότως εἴρητο· Ἐξεχύθη χάρις ἐν χείλεσί σου.In what follows it is said, Grace has been poured forth by your lips; wherefore God has blessed you unto [M23.397] the age (Ps 44.3). Moses found one kind of grace, and Noah likewise found a certain grace before God, and each of the righteous participated in grace. But since, for the Beloved, the whole Paternal grace was emptied out on him, for the Father was speaking by the Son, consequently even she who ministered his entrance among men was described as “highly favored” (Lk 1.28). For “in Him the whole fullness of the Deity was pleased to dwell bodily” (Col 1.19 + 2.9) wherefore all the saints have received of his fullness (Jn 1.16). You might also apprehend [the matter] in this way: the first work of the Beloved is the grace which was poured forth by his lips, according to the meaning that was delivered, and according to another passage, the grace and the truth came through Jesus Christ (Jn 1.17). Since he is graced in all things he accomplished these things, forgiving sins, healing their diseases and sicknesses, and bestowing on them the Holy Spirit. Because of this it was fittingly said to him, Grace has been poured forth by your lips.
Τούτοις ἑξῆς οἱ πρόσθεν ἀποκλαυσάμενοι, καὶ τὴν ὑπὸ τοῖς πολεμίοις δουλείαν ἑαυτῶν ὑπογράψαντες, εὐκαίρως τὸν Ἀγαπητὸν ἱκετεύουσι σπεῦσαι καὶ μέχρις αὐτῶν ἐλθεῖν, φραξάμενον ὅπλοις πολεμικοῖς διὰ τοὺς ἐπικειμένους ἐχθροὺς, ὡς ἂν τροπωσάμενος αὐτοὺς, τὴν ὑπ’ αὐτοῖς αἰχμαλωσίαν ὑπεξαγάγοι. Διό φασι· Περίζωσαι τὴν ῥομφαίαν σου ἐπὶ τὸν μηρόν σου, δυνατέ· ὡραῖος μὲν γὰρ εἶ καὶ καλὸς, πλὴν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τῇ ὡραιότητί σου καὶ πρὸς τῷ κάλλει σου ἀνάλαβε τὴν σαυτοῦ πανοπλίαν δι’ ἡμᾶς τοὺς σοὺς ἱκέτας· ῥομφαίαν τε περίθου τῷ σαυτοῦ μηρῷ, καὶ οὕτω τὴν σὴν δύναμιν ἀναλαβὼν, ἔντεινόν σου τὰ τόξα. Ἔπειτα βαλὼν τοὺς ἐχθροὺς, κατευοδοῦ καὶ βασίλευε. Ῥομφαίαν δὲ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ νόει τὴν δύναμιν τὴν τῶν ἐχθρῶν καθαιρετικὴν καὶ κολαστήριον. Ζῶν γὰρ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἐνεργὴς, καὶ τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν δίστομον. Καὶ ἄλλως δὲ ῥομφαίας Θεοῦ ὁ προφήτης μέμνηται Ἰεζεκιὴλ ὧδε λέγων· Τάδε λέγει Ἀδοναῒ Κύριος· Εἶπον· Ῥομφαία, ῥομφαία, ὀξύνου καὶ θυμώθητι, ὅπως σφάξῃς σφάγια· ὀξύνου, ὅπως γένῃ εἰς στίλβωσιν ἑτοίμη εἰς παράλυσιν· καὶ πάλιν· Ἀνάκραγε καὶ ὀλόλυξον, υἱὲ ἀνθρώπου· ὅτι αὐτὴ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ λαῷ μου· αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ἀφηγουμένοις τοῦ Ἰσραήλ· καὶ ἑξῆς· Διάταξον σεαυτῷ δύο ὁδοὺς τοῦ εἰσελθεῖν ῥομφαίαν βασιλέως Βαβυλῶνος· ἐκ χώρας μιᾶς ἐξελεύσονται· καὶ τὰ τούτοις ἀκόλουθα, δι’ ὧν ῥομφαίαν τοῦ Κυρίου λέγει τὴν ῥομφαίαν τοῦ Ναβουχοδονόσορ τὴν ἐπαχθεῖσαν τῷ λαῷ. Ἔχεις δὲ καὶ ἐν τοῖς Εὐαγγελίοις, ὡς ὁ ποιῶν γάμους τῷ υἱῷ αὑτοῦ βασιλεὺς τοὺς παραιτησαμένους τὴν κλῆσιν, καὶ ἀνελόντας τοὺς βασιλικοὺς δούλους, παραδίδωσιν εἰς σφαγήν· Καὶ πέμψας, φησὶ, τὸ στράτευμα αὑτοῦ, ἐνέπρησε τὴν πόλιν αὐτῶν. Στράτευμα δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως τὴν Ῥωμαϊκὴν χεῖρα σημαίνει τὴν πολιορκήσασαν τὴν Ἱερουσαλήμ. Ἐπεὶ τοίνυν χρεία ἦν καὶ τοιαύτης ῥομφαίας κατὰ τῶν ἐπαναστάντων τῷ Ἀγαπητῷ, εἰκότως φησὶν ἡ προφητεία εἰς αὐτοῦ πρόσωπον· Περίζωσαι τὴν ῥομφαίαν ἐπὶ τὸν μηρόν σου, δυνατέ. Τῇ ὡραιότητί σου καὶ τῷ κάλλει σου, καὶ ἔντεινον, καὶ κατευοδοῦ καὶ βασίλευε. [23.400]After these things those who were formerly crying out, and have described their own servitude to adversaries, in the appropriate time they supplicate the Beloved to hasten and come near them, considering the instruments of war belonging to the opposing enemies, as though he is putting them to flight, he might carry away the captivity they are under. Thus it says, Gird your sword about your thigh, O Mighty One (Ps 44.4), for while you are indeed comely and beautiful, yet do certainly take up with your comeliness and with your beauty your own full armor for the sake of us your suppliants. Do place a sword about your thigh, and in this way taking up your power, do tighten your bow. Then, after shooting the enemies, go on prosperously and rule! (Ps 44.5). One might understand the sword of the Beloved as the power that destroys and punishes the enemies, for the word of God is living and operative, and sharper than every two-edged sword (Heb 4.12). Alternatively, the prophet Ezekiel mentioned a sword of God where he says, Thus says Adonai Lord, “Say, ‘Sword, sword, be sharpened and vent wrath, so that you might slay victims; be sharpened, so that you may be glistening, ready for slaughter’” (Ezek 21.14-15), and again, “Cry out and howl, O son of man, how this [sword] was among my people, this [sword who was] among those who were leading Israel” (Ezek 21.17), and then, Arrange for yourself two ways for the sword of the king of Babylon to enter; they will come out from one region (Ezek 21.24), and the passages that follow these, through which he calls a sword of the Lord the sword of Nebuchadnezzar which was brought upon the people. There is also the passage in the Gospels, where the king puts on a wedding feast for his son, he delivers those who decline the call, and reject the royal servants, over to slaughter (Matt 22.1-14): “And sending,” it says, “his own army, he set fire to their city” (Matt 22.7). The king’s “army” signifies the Roman band [of soldiers] which laid siege to Jerusalem. Since, then, there was indeed a need for this sword against those who rose up against the Beloved, the prophecy fittingly says to his person, Gird the sword about your thigh, O Mighty One! With your comeliness and your beauty, do tighten [your bow], and go forth prosperously and rule! [M23.400]
Εἶτ’ ἐπιλέγει· Ἕνεκεν ἀληθείας καὶ πραότητος καὶ δικαιοσύνης, καὶ ὁδηγήσει σε θαυμαστῶς δεξιά σου. Ταῦτα δὲ ὁμοίως τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐξηγήσατο· Τὰ βέλη σου ἠκονημένα, καὶ λαοὶ ὑποκάτω σου πεσοῦνται, ἐν καρδίᾳ τῶν ἐχθρῶν τοῦ βασιλέως· ὃ δὴ καθ’ ὑπερβατὸν κεῖται. Συνάψεις δὲ τὴν διάνοιαν τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον· Τὰ βέλη σου ἠκονημένα ἐν καρδίᾳ τῶν ἐχθρῶν τοῦ βασιλέως. Πρῶτον μὲν γάρ φησι· Τὰ βέλη σου ἠκονημένα γενήσεται κατὰ τῆς καρδίας τῶν σῶν ἐχθρῶν· ἔπειτα, λαοὶ ὑποκάτω σου πεσοῦνται, ἐλαθέντων τοῖς σοῖς βέλεσι τῶν ἐχθρῶν. Τὸ τηνικαῦτα γοῦν ἐλευθερίας τυχόντες οἱ λαοὶ, καὶ ἀναπνεύσαντες τῶν πιεζόντων αὐτοὺς κακῶν, τοῖς σοῖς ὑποδραμοῦνται ποσί. Βέλη δὲ τοῦ Ἀγαπητοῦ ἀποστελλόμενα κατὰ τῆς καρδίας τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἀοράτους τινὰς καὶ ἀφανεῖς πληγὰς νοήσεις κατὰ τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου· οἷς βέλεσι τιτρωσκόμενοί ποτε οἱ δαίμονες ἔλεγον· Ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοὶ, Υἱὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ; Ἦλθες πρὸ καιροῦ βασανίσαι ἡμᾶς. Ὅτι ὡραῖος καὶ καλὸς καὶ χάριτος πλήρης, εὐλογημένος τε βασιλεὺς καὶ τῶν ἐχθρῶν νικητὴς ὁ Ἀγαπητὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ ἦν, ἐκ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν μεμαθήκαμεν· ὅτι δὲ πρὸς ἐκείνοις πᾶσι καὶ Θεὸς ἦν, διὰ τῶν προκειμένων διδασκόμεθα. Εἰς αὐτοῦ γὰρ πρόσωπον τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον ἀναφωνεῖ λέγον· θρόνος σου, Θεὸς, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος· ἢ κατὰ τὸν Ἀκύλαν· θρόνος σου, Θεὲ, εἰς αἰῶνα καὶ ἔτι. Ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ βασιλέα αὐτὸν ὠνόμασε διὰ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν, εἰκότως ἐπιλέγει· Ῥάβδος εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας σου. Οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐν αὐτῷ σκολιὸν οὐδὲ στραγγαλιῶδες. Καὶ ἵνα μή τις Ἰουδαϊκῶς ἐκδεξάμενος ὑπολάβοι θνητόν τινα τοῖς πολλοῖς ὅμοιον ἔσεσθαι βασιλέα τὸν Ἀγαπητὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἀναγκαίως διδάσκει, ὡς ἄρα ἐξ αἰῶνος ἦν θρόνος τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, διαρκῶν τε καὶ διαμένων ἔσται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος.Then he asserts, On behalf of truth and meekness and righteousness, indeed your right hand will lead you marvelously (Ps 44.5). This can be explained in a way similar to the others: Your arrows are sharpened, and peoples will fall beneath you, in the heart of the enemies of the king (Ps 44.6), which is presented according to hyperbaton.[4] You can achieve a coherent sense in this way: Your arrows are sharpened in the heart of the enemies of the king. For it first says, Your sharpened arrows will beagainst the heart of your enemies; then, people will fall beneath you, with the enemies having been impaled by your arrows. The nations who happened to exist at that time of freedom, then, and who had recovered from the evils which were oppressing them, will be overrun by your feet. You may understand the “arrows” of the Beloved which are dispatched against the heart of the enemies as certain unseen and invisible afflictions against the rulers of this age; the demons who had been wounded by these arrows at one time said, Ah!, what concern do you have with us, O Son of God? You have come to afflict us ahead of time (Lk 4.34 + Matt 8.29). We have learned from the preceding passages that the Beloved of God was a blessed king and conqueror of enemies, who is comely and beautiful and full of grace, but from the present passages we are taught, beyond all those things, that he is indeed God. For the Holy Spirit, speaking to His person, proclaims, Your throne, O God, is unto ages of ages (Ps 44.7), or according to Aquila, “Your throne, O God, is unto an age and beyond.” But since he named him a “king” in the preceding passages, he fittingly asserts, A scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom (Ps 44.7), for there is nothing twisted or perverse in it (cf. Prov 8.8). And so that someone might not take this in a Jewish fashion and suppose that the Beloved of God would be some mortal king like the many, he necessarily teaches that, just as the throne of his kingdom has existed from eternity, so it will perdure and remain unto the ages of ages.
Ταῦτα δὲ ὅτι μὴ εἰς πρόσωπον τοῦ Πατρὸς ἀναπεφώνηται, ἀλλ’ εἰς τὸ τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ καὶ μονογενοῦς Υἱοῦ, προϊὼν διασαφεῖ λέγων· Ἠγάπησας δικαιοσύνην, καὶ ἐμίσησας ἀνομίαν· διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε Θεὸς Θεός σου. Θεὸς γὰρ ἐν τούτοις χριόμενος ὑπὸ Θεοῦ τίς ἂν εἴη ἢ ὁ ἐν Εὐαγγελίοις θεολογούμενος· Καὶ Λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν Θεὸν, καὶ Θεὸς ἦν Λόγος; Οὗτος οὖν ὁ Θεὸς Λόγος ἠγάπησε δικαιοσύνην, καὶ ἐμίσησεν ἀνομίαν. Ἀνθ’ οὗ ὁ Ἀκύλας ἀκριβέστερον ἡρμήνευσεν εἰπών· Ἠγάπησε δικαιοσύνην, καὶ ἐμίσησεν ἀσέβημα. Κρίσει γὰρ ὀρθῇ τοὺς ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ δικαίους ἀγαπᾷ, μισεῖ δὲ τοὺς ἐναντίους· διὸ χρίεται κρείττονι ἢ παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους αὐτοῦ ἐλαίῳ τῷ καλουμένῳ ἀγαλλιάσεως, καὶ χρίεται ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ἑαυτοῦ Πατρὸς, ἢ ἐλαίῳ χαρᾶς κατὰ τὸν Ἀκύλαν, ἢ ἐλαίῳ ἀγλαϊσμοῦ κατὰ τὸν Σύμμαχον. Πολλῶν δὲ ὄντων τῶν μετόχων αὐτοῦ, ἢ ἑταίρων αὐτοῦ τῶν τῆς αὐτοῦ χάριτος μετεσχηκότων, οἳ καὶ εἴποιεν ἄν· Μέτοχοι τοῦ Χριστοῦ γεγόναμεν. Ἀνέγνωσαν δέ τινες τὴν προκειμένην λέξιν ὧδέ πως· Διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε, Θεὲ, Θεός σου, καὶ ταύτῃ γε κέχρηνται ἀναγνώσει, τῇ Ἑβραϊκῇ [23.401] λέξει δουλεύσαντες. Ἐπειδήπερ Ἐλωεὶμ ὁ Θεὸς ἐν τῇ Ἑβραϊκῇ ὠνόμασται γραφῇ, εἰπών· Ἐν ἀρχῇ θρόνος σου, Θεὲ, εἰς αἰῶνα καὶ ἔτι. Οἱ μὲν οὖν Ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ ὁ Σύμμαχος· θρόνος σου, Θεὸς, εἰρήκασιν· ὁ δὲ Ἀκύλας· Θεὲ, δουλεύσας τῇ Ἑβραϊκῇ λέξει, περιεχούσῃ Ἐλωείμ. Ἀλλ’ ὁ αὐτὸς Ἀκύλας, ὁ νῦν Θεὲ εἰρηκὼς, προϊὼν ἑξῆς δεύτερον εἰρημένου τοῦ Ἐλωεὶμ, ἐν τῷ, Διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε ὁ Θεὸς, οὐκέτι, Θεὲ, ἡρμήνευσεν, ἀλλὰ, Θεὸς, εἰπών· Ἐπὶ τούτῳ ἤλειψέ σε ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Θεός σου, δέον ἑαυτῷ συμφώνως καὶ ἐνταῦθα Θεὲ εἰπεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς λέξεως· οὕτω δὲ ἑρμηνεύσας, εἶπεν ἄν· Διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε, Θεὲ, Θεός σου.That these things have not been proclaimed to the person of the Father, but to that of the beloved and only-begotten Son, he clarifies as he goes on and says, You have loved righteousness, and you have hated lawlessness; because of this God, your God, has anointed you (Ps 44.8), for in this passage a certain God who is anointed by God would indeed be He who is theologized about in the Gospels: And the Word was with God, and the Word was God (Jn 1.1). This Logos who is God loved righteousness, and hated lawlessness. Instead of the [LXX reading], Aquila translated more precisely, saying, “He loved righteousness, and hated impiety.” For he loves the righteous under him with a straight judgment, but he hates the opposite group. Wherefore he is anointed with a better oil so-called of gladness beyond those who partake of him , and he is anointed by His own God and Father, or “with the oil of joy” according to Aquila, or “with the oil of adornment” according to Symmachus. And with the many who are partakers of Him, or his companions who have partaken of his grace, these may indeed say, We have become partakers of Christ (Heb 3.14). Certain people have read the present text here as, “For this reason, O God, your God has anointed you,” and they use this reading because they are serving the Hebrew [M23.401] text. Inasmuch as God is named “Eloeim” in the Hebrew Scripture, saying, “In the beginning your throne, O God, is unto the age and beyond.” The Seventy and Symmachus, then, have said, Your throne, O God, while Aquila says, “O God,” serving the Hebrew text which contains “Eloeim.” But Aquila himself, who presently says, “O God,” proceeds next, when “Eloeim” is mentioned a second time, when it says, “For this reason God has anointed you,” to no longer translate it as, “O God,” but rather says, “God”: “With this [oil], God, your God, has anointed you,” making it appropriate to say about this text “O God” for him to be in agreement with himself. And after translating in this way, it would say, “For this reason your God anointed you, O God.”
V. 9.          Σμύρνα καὶ στακτὴ καὶ κασία ἀπὸ τῶν ἱματίων σου, ἀπὸ βάρεων ἐλεφαντίνων. Ἀντὶ δὲ βάρεων ἐλεφαντίνων, ὁ Ἀκύλας· Ἀπὸ ναῶν ὀδόντος, εἴρηκε. Ναοὶ γὰρ ἐνταῦθα εἴρηνται τοῦ Νυμφίου αἱ Ἐκκλησίαι, καὶ αἱ Χριστῷ ἀνακείμεναι ψυχαὶ, ἐν λογικῇ τροφῇ πᾶσαν ἔχοντες τὴν δύναμιν. Τροφῆς δὲ καὶ λόγων σύμβολον οἱ ὀδόντες. Ἔνθεν καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ οἱ ὀδόντες λευκοὶ λέγονται εἶναι ὑπὲρ γάλα ἐν τῇ περὶ αὐτοῦ φασκούσῃ προφητείᾳ· Χαροποιοὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ οἴνου, καὶ λευκοὶ οἱ ὀδόντες αὐτοῦ γάλα. Κατὰ δὲ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἑρμηνευτὰς, ἐλεφάντινοι οἱ ναοὶ ἢ αἱ βάρεις αὐτοῦ λέγονται, διὰ τὸ νεκροῦ ζώου τυχεῖν τὸν ἐξ ἐλέφαντος κόσμον· οἵ τε ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ εὐδοκιμοῦντες οὐκ ἄλλως διαλάμπουσιν ἢ νεκρώσαντες τὰ μέλη τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, κατατὴν ἀποστολικὴν παραγγελίαν.V. 9.          Myrrh and aloe and cassia [exude] from your garments, from ivory palaces[5] (Ps 44.9). Instead of ivory palaces, Aquila has said, “From temples of tusk[6],” for “temples” are here speaking of the Churches of the Bridegroom, and the souls which are devoted to Christ, which have all power in rational nourishment. “Teeth” are a symbol of nourishment and of words. Whence even the teeth of Christ himself are said to be whiter than milk in the prophecy which says concerning him, His eyes are more joyous than wine, and his teeth whiter than milk (Gen 49.12). And in accordance with the rest of the translators, his “temples” or “palaces” are called “ivory” because of attaining the ornament from ivory of a dead animal. Those who are well approved in the Church shine forth in no other way than in putting [their] members to death that are on the earth, in accordance with the apostolic precept (Col 3.5).
V. 10.        Παρέστη βασίλισσα ἐκ δεξιῶν σου, ἐν ἱματισμῷ διαχρύσῳ περιβεβλημένη, πεποικιλμένη.[7] Αἱ μὲν θυγατέρες τῶν βασιλέων, Χριστοῦ δηλαδὴ καὶ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας αὐτοῦ, αἱ κατὰ μέρος ἦσαν ψυχαί. Αὐτὴ δὲ βασίλισσα ἡ μήτηρ τῶν θυγατέρων παρέστη ἐκ δεξιῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἱματισμῷ διαχρύσῳ περιβεβλημένη, πεποικιλμένη. Τίς δ’ ἂν εἴη αὐτὴ ἀλλ’ ἢ πᾶσα καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία, ἡ ἀπὸ περάτων γῆς ἕως περάτων ἐκ πάντων ἐθνῶν συνειλεγμένη; ἣν αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ ᾠκοδόμησεν ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν, πρὸς τὸ μὴ πύλας ᾅδου κατισχύειν αὐτῆς. Κυριώτερον δ’ ἂν εἴποις διὰ τούτου τὴν ἐπουράνιον δηλοῦσθαι Ἐκκλησίαν, ἥτις ἐστὶ μήτηρ τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἁγίων ἀνδρῶν. Τοῦτο γοῦν ἐδίδαξεν ὁ θεῖος Ἀπόστολος εἰπών· δὲ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν, ἥτις ἐστὶ μήτηρ ἡμῶν. Καλεῖ δ’ αὐτὴν καὶ πόλιν Θεοῦ ζῶντος Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐπουράνιον ἐν μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων πανηγύρει, καὶ Ἐκκλησίαν πρωτοτόκων ἀπογεγραμμένων ἐν οὐρανοῖς, συνεστῶσαν. Αὕτη μὲν οὖν εἴη ἂν ἡ τελεία Χριστοῦ νύμφη. Ταύτης δ’ οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοις θυγατέρα φήσας ὑπάρχειν τὴν ἐπὶ γῆς Ἐκκλησίαν. Βασίλισσα δ’ ἐκείνη, ὡς ἂν ἤδη συμβασιλεύουσα τῷ ἑαυτῆς νυμφίῳ· διὸ ἐκ δεξιῶν παρεστάναι τοῦ Βασιλέως εἴρηται· ἅτε νύμφη οὖσα αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ παρ’ αὐτοῦ σπέρματα δεχομένη, κύουσά τε καὶ τίκτουσα διὰ παντὸς πνεῦμα σωτηρίας· ἣ καὶ τὸ βασιλικὸν ἔνδυμα περιτίθησι, τὸ φωτοειδὲς τῆς ἀφθαρσίας ἔνδυμα· ὃ δὴ, πνευματικὸν διόλου τυγχάνον, ταῖς κατ’ οὐρανὸν ἀγγελικαῖς δυνάμεσι περιβέβληται. [23.404] Τοῦτο καὶ διάχρυσον ὁ παρὼν λόγος ὠνόμασε. Τὸ δὲ, περιβεβλημένη καὶ πεποικιλμένη, οὔτε ἐν τῇ Ἑβραϊκῇ ἀναγνώσει οὔτε παρὰ τοῖς λοιποῖς ἑρμηνευταῖς φέρεται· διὸ ὠβέλισται.V. 10.        The queen stood at your right hand, bedecked in woven gold raiment, in varied array (Ps 44.10). The daughters of the kings are clearly the souls which have a portion in Christ and His Church. This queen, who is mother of the daughters, stood at His right hand bedecked in woven gold raiment, in varied array. Who else might she be except the whole catholic Church which has been gathered together from all nations from one end of the earth to the other end? Which he built for himself on the rock, so that the gates of hades might not prevail over it (cf. Matt 16.18). You might say that it is more properly the heavenly Church that is being indicated through this passage, which is the mother of the holy men on earth. The divine Paul taught this when he said, The Jerusalem above is free, which is our mother (Gal 4.26). He also calls it the city consisting of the living God, heavenly Jerusalem with a myriad of angels in festal assembly, and Church of the firstborn who are recorded in heaven (Heb 12.22). She would then be the perfect bride of Christ, and you would not be wrong to say that her “daughters” are the Church that exists on earth. This queen, since she is already co-reigning with her Bridegroom—since it is said that she stands at the right hand of the King—while at the same time she is his bride, and receives seed from him, conceiving and bearing a spirit of salvation continually; she has also put on royal garment, the brilliant garment of incorruption.[8] This [garment] which is altogether spiritual, is bedecked with the angelic powers according to heaven. [M23.404] The present passage names this woven gold. And the text, she is bedecked and in varied array, is found neither in the Hebrew reading nor with the rest of the translators, wherefore it is marked with an obelisk.[9]
V. 14.        Πᾶσα δόξα αὐτῆς θυγατρὸς τοῦ βασιλέως Ἐσεβὼν ἐν κροσσωτοῖς χρυσοῖς περιβεβλημένη, πεποικιλμένη. Νοήσεις, φησὶ, πῶς κροσσοῖς χρυσοῖς περιβέβληται, Παύλου λέγοντος ἀκούων· Ἐκ μέρους γινώσκομεν, καὶ ἐκ μέρους προφητεύομεν. Ἡ γὰρ γνῶσις ἡ ἐκ μέρους ἐν ἄκροις μόνοις χρυσίου τὸν κόσμον αὐτῇ περιτίθησιν· Ὅταν δἔλθῃ τὸ τέλειον, φησὶ,τὸ ἐκ μέρους καταργηθήσεται. Ἐπειδὰν εἰς τὴν ἐπουράνιον Ἐκκλησίαν μεταστῇ ἡ τέως ἐκ γῆς παιδοτροφουμένη, τὸ τηνικαῦτα ἀποθήσεται μὲν τὰ κροσσωτὰ τὰ χρυσᾶ, τὴν ἐκ μέρους γνῶσιν, ἐν ἱματισμῷ δὲ χρυσῷ.V. 14.         All her glory is the daughter of the king of Heshbon[10], who is bedecked in varied array with golden fringed garments (Ps 44.14). You will understand, it says, how she is bedecked with golden fringed garments, when you hear Paul who says, We know in part, and we prophesy in part (1 Cor 13.9), for the knowledge which is in part encircles the ornament for her with only extremities of gold. But when the perfect comes, he says, that which is partial will be abolished (1 Cor 13.10). When she who is being raised as a child in the meantime from earth is translated to the heavenly Church, at that time she will put off the “golden fringes,” the knowledge in part, for a golden garment (Ps 44.10).
Vv. 15-16. Ἀπενεχθήσονται τῷ Βασιλεῖ παρθένοι ὀπίσω αὐτῆς, αἱ πλησίον αὐτῆς ἀπενεχθήσονταί σοι. Ἡ διὰ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν πολλάκις ὠνομασμένη θυγάτηρ οὐκ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰς τὸ παντελὲς διαμένει, μετατεθήσεται δὲ κατὰ καιρόν. Ἀλλ’ οὐ πᾶσα ἀθρόως τῆς τοιαύτης μεταβάσεως ἀξιωθήσεται· ἐν μέρει δὲ αἱ πρώτῳ βαθμῷ ἐν αὐτῇ τετιμημέναι ἀπενεχθήσονται τῷ Βασιλεῖ. Αὗται δέ εἰσιν αἱ τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἁγνείαν κατορθώσασαι ψυχῇ καὶ σώματι, καὶ πνεύματι καθηγιασμέναι. Μετὰ δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τάγμα αἱ πλησίον αὐτῶν ἀπενεχθήσονται· πολλαὶ γὰρ μοναὶ παρὰ τῷ Πατρί. Αὗται δέ εἰσιν αἱ τὸν ἔγγιστα τόπον τῶν παρθένων ἐπέχουσαι διὰ σεμνοῦ καὶ σώφρονος βίου. Ὅπως δὲ ἀπενεχθήσονται παρίστησι λέγων· ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ καὶ ἀγαλλιάσει. Νοήσεις δὲ ὅπως εἴρηται τοῦτο, παραθεὶς τὴν ἀποστολικὴν φωνὴν ᾗ φησιν· Ἁρπαγησόμεθα ἐν νεφέλαις εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ Κυρίου εἰς ἀέρα, καὶ οὕτω πάντοτε σὺν Κυρίῳ ἐσόμεθα. Οὐ γὰρ ἐλεύσονται οὐδὲ ἀπελεύσονται τῷ Βασιλεῖ παρθένοι, ἀλλ’ ἀπενεχθήσονται, ἄλλων αὐτὰς ἀπαγόντων· ἀγγέλων δηλαδὴ θείων μετεωριζόντων αὐτὰς καὶ εἰς ὕψος ἐπαιρόντων, ὡς ἂν εὐμαρῆ τὴν ἄνω ποιήσαιντο πορείαν. Ἀπενεχθήσονται δ’ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ καὶ ἀγαλλιάσει, καὶ εἰσαχθήσονται εἰς ναὸν βασιλέως, εἰς τὸν οἶκον τὸν βασιλικὸν τῆς τῶν οὐρανῶν βασιλείας καταξιούμεναι. Ναὸς δὲ οἶκος Θεοῦ ἐστιν· ὥστε Θεὸς ὁ Βασιλεὺς, ᾧ ἀπάγονται. Ἄγουσι δὲ αὐτὰς καὶ οἱ τὰ παιδεύματα παραδιδόντες αὐταῖς, ὅ τε Νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται.Vv. 15-16. Virgins will be brought to the King behind her, her cohorts will be brought to you (Ps 44.15). The daughter who is named many times in the previous passages does not remain on earth indefinitely, but will be translated in due time. But not all collectively will be worthy of this transition, rather those who have been honored in her by a first degree will be brought to the King. Such people are those who have restored [their] soul and body to the purity in Christ, and who have been sanctified in spirit. After this first order their cohorts will be brought, for many will be one with the Father. These are those who through a life of devotion and moderation have kept the place nearest to the virgins. It presents the manner in which they will be brought when it says, in mirth and gladness (Ps 44.16). You will understand what manner is being mentioned here, when comparing the apostolic passage in which it says, We will be caught up in clouds for the meeting with the Lord in the air, and thus we will always be with the Lord (1 Thess 4.17). For virgins will not come to, nor will they depart for the King, but they will be brought, with others bringing them, who are clearly the divine angels who make them rise and ascend to the heights, so they might make the journey above with ease. And they will be brought with mirth and gladness, and they will be brought into the temple of the king (Ps 44.16), those who have been made worthy [to enter] into the royal house of the kingdom of heaven. A “temple” is a house of God, so that God is the King to whom they are brought. Indeed, the Law and the Prophets, which delivers instructive discipline to them, also brings them [to the King].
V. 17.        Ἀντὶ τῶν πατέρων σου ἐγεννήθησάν σοι υἱοί. Τούτων τὴν διάνοιαν σαφέστερον ἀποδεδώκασιν οἱ λοιποί· ὁ μὲν Ἀκύλας εἰπών· Ἀντὶ τῶν πατέρων σου ἔσονταί σοι υἱοί· ὁ δὲ Σύμμαχος· Ἀντὶ πατέρων ἐγένοντο υἱοί σου. Ἡ δ’ ἑρμηνεία τοῦ λόγου ταύτην ἔχει τὴν διάνοιαν· Οἱ υἱοί σου οἱ ἐν σοὶ καὶ ὑπὸ σοῦ γεγεννημένοι ἀντὶ πατέρων γενήσονταί σοι. Ἕξεις γὰρ αὐτοὺς πατέρας, οὓς αὐτὴ γεγέννηκας. Νοήσεις δὲ τοῦ λόγου τὸ ἀποτέλεσμα, ἐπιστήσας ὅπως οἱ ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἀλλόφυλοι, προσελθόντες τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ ἀναγεννηθέντες ἐν αὐτῇ, υἱοὶ αὐτῆς γίγνονται· κἄπειτα ἐπιδιδόντες τῇ προκοπῇ, πατέρες αὐτῆς καθίστανται, προαγόμενοι εἰς τὴν αὐτῆς προστασίαν [23.405], καὶ τῆς ἱερατικῆς λειτουργίας καταξιούμενοι. Πῶς δ’ ἕξεις αὐτοὺς ἀντὶ πατέρων διερμηνεύει, σαφέστερον λέγων· Καταστήσεις αὐτοὺς ἄρχοντας ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν. Λέγει δὲ ταῦτα πρὸς τὴν ἐπὶ γῆς Ἐκκλησίαν ὁ λόγος, τὴν ἀπὸ περάτων ἕως περάτων διήκουσαν· ἐφ’ ἣν ἄρχοντας καὶ πατέρας τοὺς ἰδίους υἱοὺς αὐτὴ ἡ Ἐκκλησία τοῦ Θεοῦ καθίστησιν.V. 17.        Instead of your fathers sons have been begotten for you. The other [versions] provide a clearer sense for this verse. Aquila says, “Instead of your fathers there will be sons for you,” and Symmachus, “Instead of fathers they have become your sons.” The translation of the passage has this meaning: Your sons who came into existence in you and by you will be for you instead of fathers. For you will have those as fathers, whom you yourself have begotten. You will understand the ending of the passage when you observe how the foreigners from the nations, who approach the Church of God, and are regenerated in it, become her sons. After they commit to advance, her fathers are appointed, advancing to a presidency for her [M23.405], and becoming worthy of the priestly liturgical service. How you will have them instead of fathers he interprets, when it says more clearly: You will establish them as rulers over all the earth (Ps 44.17). The word says these things to the Church on earth, which extends from one end [of the earth] to the other end. The Church of God herself appoints her own sons as rulers and fathers over her.
V. 18.        Διὰ τοῦτο λαοὶ ὑμνήσουσί σε εἰς αἰῶνα διηνεκῶς. Ἡ προλεχθεῖσα θυγάτηρ τῶν βασιλέων, αὕτη δὲ ἦν ἡ ἐπὶ γῆς Ἐκκλησία, συναισθομένη τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ πατρικοῦ ὀνόματος, ἐπειδήπερ ἐχαρίσατο αὐτῷ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα· ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ πᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃ ἐπουρανίων καὶ ἐπιγείων καὶ καταχθονίων, μετὰ τὰς πρὸς αὐτὴν λεχθείσας ἐπαγγελίας, πιστεύσασα φωναῖς, χαρᾶς τε καὶ εὐφροσύνης πληρωθεῖσα.V. 18.        Wherefore people hymn you forever continually. The daughter of the kings we read about previously, who is the Church on earth, is perceived together with the power of the Paternal name, inasmuch as he bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that in the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those heavenly and those earthly and those sub-earthly (Phil 2.9-10), believing in these expressions, according to the promises relayed to her, and being filled with joy and mirth.
Translation by Justin Gohl

[1] LXX θυγατέρες

[2] On the importance of this text for Patristic views of inspiration, see R. C. Hill, “Psalm 45: a locus classicus for patristic thinking on biblical inspiration,” Studia Patristica 25 (1993): 95-100.

[3] PGL 1043.

[4] A rhetorical device employing the inversion of words. In Comm. Prov. 1.3 (PG 17.153), Origen provides a definition of this device: “For when a saying (logos) is turned according to its arrangement, and something said seems to be interrupted by something that is said in the middle, hyperbaton has occurred, which is also called a ‘turn of word.’” Cf. Martens, Origen and Scripture, 57, n.103, for other examples of hyperbaton according to Origen: Lk Frag 20; Comm. Rom. 1.13.1; 6.7.6; Commentary on Ephesians 9 (1.15-18). See also William David Shiell, Reading Acts: The Lector and the Early Christian Audience (BIS 70; Boston: Brill, 2004), 202, citing Irenaeus, Adv. Her. 3.7.2., on issue of performative reading.

[5] Or “citadels.”

[6] Lit. “of [a] tooth.”

[7] Eusebius passes over the last phrase of v. 9 and (largely) the first phrase of v. 10: ἐξ ὧν ηὔφρανάν σε 10  θυγατέρες βασιλέων ἐν τῇ τιμῇ σου.

[8] Cf. PGL 1511, used by Origen in Comm. Ps. 44.10 (Pitra, Analecta Sacra III, p. 42).

[9] Eusebius passes over commenting on vv. 11-13.

[10] LXX ἔσωθεν “within.”

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